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作品[27]:丽江--玉湖小学及社区中心
http://finance.QQ.com  2005年11月29日20:51  腾讯财经  ()

参展说明

玉湖村,一个位于世界文化遗产保护基地丽江点击查看丽江及更多城市天气预报的纳西小村落,从昆明点击查看昆明及更多城市天气预报向西而行大约10h的车程。小村坐落在玉龙雪山脚下,海拔2760m,气候宜人,冬暖夏凉。美丽的雪山,晶莹的雪峰为村落提供了一个壮观的背景。

玉湖小学,这所位于中国云南西北的乡村小学始建于2001年,如今已经不能适应教学要求,急需扩建。项目基金来源于新加坡和中国的捐赠者以及当地政府的拨款。扩建基地也是由当地居民捐赠,位于原有的玉湖小学北面,毗邻著名的美籍奥地利植物学家和国家地理杂志记者约瑟夫•查里斯•洛克(1922-1962)的故居。

建筑师李晓东的设计理念的产生建立在他对当地传统、建造技术、建筑材料以及资源的研究基础之上。因此,该项目将研究和设计融为一体,试图通过对环境,社会和建筑保护的根本理解来达到对丽江乡土建筑的新的诠释。

设计

该项目的完成融入了大约160名学生和将近1300个村民的共同努力。整个建筑由3部分组成:一个带展览空间的社区中心,向整个村落开放,加上两翼的两层高教室。建筑吸收并打破传统的纳西四合院建筑的布局,创造性地以一端的一棵古老的枫树为中心,采用“z”形布局,并将院落一分为二。其一为学校内院,被两个教室单体和农田所界定,另一个公共院落则是由其中的一个教室单体,社区中心和洛克故居的外墙共同围合而成。

设计者意图将新增建筑与原有环境相融合,试图以一种现代语汇来诠释当地乡土建筑,而不是简单的模仿。因此,所有的传统审美处理手法还有装饰都被简约化:弯曲的屋顶曲线被拉直,山墙的装饰也被简化成木制格栅,其灵感来源于传统的农家晾谷架。乡土建筑的精华被提炼,并以形式和空间的方式表达出来。这里,建筑师保留了坡屋顶的基本元素,例如灰色瓦砖的运用,以及将内部空间以传统的正开间划分等等。

本着经济的可持续发展性的原则,整个工程的建造由新加坡顾问队带领当地施工队及建筑工人共同完成。通过这样的合作组合,传统的建筑材料和技术得以与现代技术相结合,当然这之中少不了很多轮来自两种技术文化的争论,试验和相互的妥协调整。

基于以山为骨、以水为魄的纳西文化,设计者有意识地将当地材料和元素最大程度地运用到了设计中。并且对于材料的可持续发展的考虑,在设计中大量采用了当地资源丰富的白色石灰沉积岩和卵石,主要使用在石墙和铺地上。由于周围的建筑大多是由粘土砖建成,白色石灰石的运用使得该建筑即卓尔不群,又显得很和谐。

SCHOOL & COMMUNITY CENTRE, LIJIANG, CHINA

ARCHITECT

LI, Xiaodong

Chair Professor

School of Architecture

Tsinghua University

Yuhu Elementary School and Community Centre in Lijiang

Yuhu is a Naxi minority village in the UNESCO World Heritage site of Lijiang, ten hours’ bus journey North-west of Kunming. On the foothills of the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, it is 2,760 metres above sea level and so enjoys a cool-dry climate with cool summer and mild winters. Behind it rise the white peaks of the mountains, dramatically defining the horizon.

The project caters for some 160 students and a cultural activity space for some 1,300 villagers with no less than eight rooms and an exhibition space. The design took on the sustainable basic principle of reinventing vernacular architecture. The project is planned with three small buildings in a “Z” shaped pivoted around an old maple tree. This allowed two open spaces (courtyards) to be created, defined by the blocks: a school courtyard defined by two classroom blocks and agriculture fields; and a more intimate community courtyard defined by a classroom block, a community block and Rock’s residence boundary wall with water features.

The architects designed the staircase as a focal point for the community courtyard. It is regarded as a total modern architectural insertion and is designed as a sculptural expression. Its core is to be cast in reinforced concrete, clad in limestone, with steel cantilevered fins to hold timber treads and risers. Compared to the traditional Naxi house, the staircases are usually small and located in a corner of the house. By taking the staircase out of the building, more classroom space was also created.

With the Naxi tenet of the mountains as the backbone and water as the soul of their culture, the design incorporated local stones and water. The most plentiful material in the area is white-coloured sedimentary limestone as well as cobblestones. In consideration of material sustainability, the architects decided to use it as much as possible, cobblestones for water features and limestone for the rest. Big sliding and casement fenestrations open in clement weather to allow as much light to penetrate as possible. All traditional aesthetic treatments or ornamentations were reduced to their basics: curved roof ridges were straightened, gable end ornamentations simplified into a timber lattice frame inspired by traditional grains racks.

Traditional construction materials and techniques have been carefully married to modern ones. Timber was brought, cut and planed on site to make the structural frame and fenestrations. A structure design challenge was how to allow the buildings to withstand lateral loading in this earthquake zone. The timber frame system harnesses the flexibility allowed by mortise and tenon joints to resist tensional forces during an earthquake. The timber frame structure also meant that the stonewalls are non-loadbearing and are independent of the timber structure. The timber lattice frames at the gable end are also designed to prevent massive collapse of stone gable walls during an earthquake.

Unlike traditional Naxi houses that sit on stone pad foundations, reinforced concrete pad foundation with ground beams were used. Stonewalls were also reinforced with vertical rebars and horizontal wire mesh at regular intervals to resist lateral forces during an earthquake. While the concrete may have been relatively new, compared to traditional mud/lime mortar, the stones and timber were prepared in traditional fashion. New ways of composing and putting together traditional materials create interesting juxtaposition of new and old, reinventing the traditional Naxi house for modern usage.

Credits and Data

Project title: Yuhu Elementary School and Community Centre in Lijiang

Client: Yuhu Elementary School

Location: Yuhu Village, Lijiang, China

Design: 2001 – 2002

Construction: 2003 – 2004

Architect: Li Xiaodong

Project team: Yeo Kang Shua (Project manager), Chong Keng Hua, Stanley Lee Tse Chen

Structural Engineer: Lim Guan Tiong

Photographs: Melvin H J Tan

Site area: 1,330 m2

Building coverage area: 500 m2

Floor area: 830 m2

Cost: $29,000 (RMB 235,000)

For more information, please contact:

Dr Li Xiaodong

Architect, Chair Professor

School of Architecture

Tsinghua University

Mr Yeo Kang Shua

Project Manager

Department of Architecture,

School of Design & Environment

National University of Singapore

Tel: 874 4471 or email: g0202443@nus.edu.sg

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张永和评论

北京点击查看北京及更多城市天气预报清华大学的李晓东在云南丽江做的一个建筑群设计,他从建筑形式到格局都力图和丽江这座历史文化名城以及传统民居建立一个传承发展的关系。

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